Relación entre calidad de vida y provisión de cuidado paliativo en mujeres con cáncer en Colombia: un estudio transversal

  • Ricardo Sánchez-Pedraza
  • Fabio Sierra-Matamoros
  • Olga Lucía Morales-Mesa

Resumen

Objetivo: comparar los niveles de calidad de vida (CV) entre pacientes que recibieron o no cuidado paliativo (CP), y que tenían diagnóstico de cáncer de mama u otros tipos de cáncer ginecológico.

Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal efectuado en una institución de referencia en el país para diagnóstico y tratamiento del cáncer (Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Bogotá, Colombia). En una muestra no probabilística de 114 pacientes de sexo femenino, con diagnóstico histopatológico de cáncer de mama o algún tipo de cáncer ginecológico, que aceptaran participar en el estudio, se efectuaron análisis bivariados para medir asociación entre cuidado paliativo y variables demográficas y clínicas. Se compararon puntajes de las dimensiones de calidad de vida entre grupos usando pruebas de rango con signo. Para evaluar asociación entre recibir cuidado paliativo y dominios de calidad de vida se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística.

Resultados: hubo 49 casos de cáncer de cérvix (42,98 %), 30 de cáncer de mama (26,32 %), 24 de ovario (21,05 %), 10 de endometrio (8,77 %) y uno de vulva (0,88 %). El 13 % de las pacientes (N = 15) recibió CP (IC 95 %: 8-20). Hubo mayor proporción de pacientes con estadios avanzados entre quienes recibieron CP. Hubo menor CV en pacientes remitidas a CP, específicamente en los dominios bienestar físico y funcional. Los estimadores de asociación CV-CP fueron: físico (OR = 0,97; IC 95 %: 0,83-1,12); social/familiar (OR = 1,02; IC 95 %: 0,82-1,27); emocional (OR = 1,10; IC 95 %: 0,91-1,33); funcional (OR = 0,72; IC 95 %: 0,60-0,87).

Conclusión: la frecuencia de provisión de cuidado paliativo en esta muestra es baja. Su indicación parece relacionarse más con el compromiso en la calidad de vida (específicamente en el dominio de funcionalidad) que con el estadio clínico. El cuidado paliativo es más frecuente en pacientes con mayor nivel educativo, lo cual puede relacionarse con un mayor nivel de participación en la toma de decisiones de estos pacientes.

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Biografía del autor/a

Ricardo Sánchez-Pedraza
Grupo de Investigación Clínica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Bogotá (Colombia). Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, (Colombia). rsanchezpe@unal.edu.co
Fabio Sierra-Matamoros
Instituto de Evaluación Tecnológica en Salud (IETS), Bogotá (Colombia).
Olga Lucía Morales-Mesa
Unidad de Cuidado Paliativo, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Bogotá (Colombia).

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Publicado
2017-03-31
Cómo citar
1.
Sánchez-Pedraza R, Sierra-Matamoros F, Morales-Mesa OL. Relación entre calidad de vida y provisión de cuidado paliativo en mujeres con cáncer en Colombia: un estudio transversal. Rev. Colomb. Obstet. Ginecol. [Internet]. 31 de marzo de 2017 [citado 23 de julio de 2021];68(1):25-4. Disponible en: https://revista.fecolsog.org/index.php/rcog/article/view/2979
Sección
Investigación Original