Consecuencias de la exposición prenatal al alcohol: desarrollo histórico de la investigación y evolución de las recomendaciones

  • Mariana Beatriz López
  • Vanessa Arán-Filippetti

Resumen

Objetivo: diversos estudios señalan un déficit y una demanda de información entre distintos profesionales de la salud en relación con las características de los trastornos vinculados a la exposición prenatal al alcohol y su prevención. Este documento busca hacer una reflexión sobre los aspectos más relevantes por considerar en la detección y el manejo del consumo de alcohol durante la gestación.

Materiales y métodos: con base en la revisión de la evolución histórica de la investigación sobre los trastornos vinculados a la exposición prenatal al alcohol se da respuesta a las siguientes preguntas: 1) ¿Cuáles son los criterios diagnósticos actuales de los trastornos del espectro alcohólico fetal (TEAF)?, 2) ¿cuál es la prevalencia del síndrome de alcoholismo fetal (SAF) y otros TEAF?, 3) ¿cuál ha sido la evolución de las recomendaciones internacionales respecto al consumo de alcohol durante la gestación?, 4) ¿qué estrategias de prevención existen actualmente? Para esto se realiza una extensa revisión de la investigación publicada a nivel internacional.

Resultados: la investigación moderna respecto a la exposición prenatal al alcohol evidencia que esta puede dar lugar a un amplio espectro de problemas. Las dificultades para establecer una dosis de alcohol segura durante la gestación han conducido a la modificación progresiva de las recomendaciones respecto del consumo durante este periodo, desde el consumo moderado hasta la abstinencia.

Conclusión: el impacto y la magnitud de esta problemática exigen el desarrollo de planes de prevención específicos. Su implementación demanda la formación continua de los profesionales que trabajan en cuidados periconcepcionales y perinatales.

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Biografía del autor/a

Mariana Beatriz López
Becaria posdoctoral, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (Ciipme), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Conicet), Argentina. Profesora Adjunta, Facultad de Humanidades, Artes y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Vanessa Arán-Filippetti
Investigadora Asistente, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (Ciipme), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Conicet), Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Publicado
2014-06-30
Cómo citar
1.
López MB, Arán-Filippetti V. Consecuencias de la exposición prenatal al alcohol: desarrollo histórico de la investigación y evolución de las recomendaciones. Rev. Colomb. Obstet. Ginecol. [Internet]. 30 de junio de 2014 [citado 20 de agosto de 2019];65(2):162-73. Disponible en: https://revista.fecolsog.org/index.php/rcog/article/view/64
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Artículo de Reflexión