Embarazo posterior a cirugía bariátrica: complicaciones maternas y fetales

Jairo Hernández-Pinzón, Marcos Castillo-Zamora, Victoria E Arango-Galvis

Resumen


Objetivo: utilizando herramientas de revisiones sistemáticas, describir los efectos de la obesidad en el embarazo para la madre y el feto, así como describir las complicaciones perinatales, intraparto y posnatales en pacientes a las que se les ha practicado cirugía bariátrica.

Metodología: se utilizó la base de datos Pubmed/Medline, los términos de búsqueda fueron: bariatric surgery AND/OR obstetric complications, pregnance, abortion, pregnancy outcomes, adverse pregnancy outcomes. Se hizo énfasis en guías de práctica clínica, se realizó búsqueda en sitios de sinopsis de la literatura médica del Database of Abstracts or Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE).

Resultados: se seleccionaron 50 artículos, los cuales fueron sintetizados en la sección de resultados de la revisión. La cirugía bariátrica predispone a la isquemia intestinal y formación de hernias en los embarazos posteriores. También se han descrito deficiencias específicas de micronutrientes. Por otra parte, existen informes contradictorios sobre el efecto en el peso fetal.

Conclusiones: el seguimiento de los embarazos después del primer año de la cirugía para pérdida de peso no informa episodios importantes de malnutrición materna o fetal. La evidencia muestra que los resultados del embarazo después de la cirugía bariátrica son favorables, en comparación con los resultados en los obesos no tratados quirúrgicamente, se necesitan más estudios prospectivos diseñados cuidadosamente para evaluar áreas de incertidumbre en este campo.


Palabras clave


cirugía bariátrica; complicaciones obstétricas; embarazo; obesidad

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Referencias


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ISSN Impreso       0034-7434 

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