Estados hiperandrogénicos: revisión de la literatura

  • Gustavo Alfonso Villarreal-Tordecilla

Resumen

Objetivos: realizar una revisión de la fisiopatología, la etiología, el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los estados hiperandrogénicos.

Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda electrónica en PubMed/Medline para recopilar información publicada tanto en inglés como en español desde el año 1990 a 2009. Después, se eligieron artículos de investigación en hiperandrogenismo que evaluaran la fisiopatología, la etiología, el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de los estados hiperandrogénicos, usando finalmente resúmenes para llevar a cabo el análisis.

Resultados: el exceso de andrógenos se puede producir por una alteración en el transporte, en la respuesta final, por el bloqueo de su transformación en estrógenos y por la administración exógena. Asimismo, éstos tienen su origen principalmente en los ovarios y las glándulas suprarrenales, expresándose clínicamente en tres aspectos diferentes: unidad pilosebácea y desórdenes reproductivos y metabólicos. Estos estados repercuten negativamente a nivel estético, reproductivo, metabólico y cardio vascular, por lo cual es necesario realizar un perfil hormonal y estudios de imagen con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico. Además, en algunas entidades existe un tratamiento específico, mientras que en otras el manejo está orientado a la sintomatología predominante.

Conclusiones: la fisiopatología y la etiología del exceso de andrógenos son muy variadas. Debido al cuadro clínico y a las consecuencias que esta entidad genera, se requiere estudio y manejo multidisciplinario.

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Biografía del autor/a

Gustavo Alfonso Villarreal-Tordecilla
Especialista en Medicina Interna, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Fellow 2do. año de Endocrinología y Metabolismo. Servicio de Ginecología Endocrinológica, Hospital Militar Central. Bogotá (Colombia).

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Publicado
2009-12-20
Cómo citar
1.
Villarreal-Tordecilla GA. Estados hiperandrogénicos: revisión de la literatura. Rev. Colomb. Obstet. Ginecol. [Internet]. 20 de diciembre de 2009 [citado 17 de abril de 2021];60(4):357-64. Disponible en: https://revista.fecolsog.org/index.php/rcog/article/view/319
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Artículo de Revisión