Papel de la inmunología en la endocrinología ginecológica: revisión de la literatura

  • Ivonne Díaz-Yamal
  • Carolina Ruiz-Wagner

Resumen

Objetivos: revisar la asociación que existe entre los diferentes mecanismos inmunes y los eventos endocrinos necesarios para la regulación de la reproducción humana.

Metodología: el presente trabajo es una revisión sistemática cualitativa, para la cual se consultaron las bases de datos de Ovid y PubMed/Medline, seleccionando artículos publicados entre 1984 y 2009 referentes a estudios en animales y humanos que demostraran la relación existente entre los esteroides y la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas con el sistema inmune, así como su expresión en algunas enfermedades de tipo autoinmune.

Resultados: muchos estudios experimentales en animales han demostrado una asociación entre el sistema inmune y los diferentes ejes neuroendocrinos que regulanla reproducción humana. Aunque en el hombre no han sido dilucidados los mecanismos definitivos, se ha observado que la Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropinas (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone [GnRH]) y los esteroides sexuales tienen efectos a nivel de la programación del sistema inmune y su modulación. De la misma forma, se advierte que sistemas inmunes como el de la interleucina-1 juegan un papel importante en la regulación del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-gónada y de otros ejes involucrados en la reproducción.

Conclusiones: la GnRH y los esteroides son moduladores de la respuesta inmune de manera que pueden estimularla o suprimirla. Los sistemas inmunes como el de interleucinas (IL-1) tienen efectos antigonadotróficos a nivel central, y esteroidogénicos a nivel ovárico, relacionándose así con otros sistemas como el adrenal y el tiroideo con respecto a la ovulación y a la formación del cuerpo lúteo y su regresión; procesos importantes en la reproducción.

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Biografía del autor/a

Ivonne Díaz-Yamal
Especialista en Ginecología y Obstetricia. Docente de la Unidad de Fertilidad y Endocrinología Reproductiva, Hospital Militar Central, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Unidad de Fertilidad por Procreación Medicamente Asistida (PMA), Clínica Marly. Bogotá (Colombia).
Carolina Ruiz-Wagner
Residente de 3er año de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá (Colombia). Rotación por Unidad de Fertilidad y Endocrinología Reproductiva, Hospital Militar Central. Bogotá (Colombia). 

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Publicado
2009-12-20
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1.
Díaz-Yamal I, Ruiz-Wagner C. Papel de la inmunología en la endocrinología ginecológica: revisión de la literatura. Rev. Colomb. Obstet. Ginecol. [Internet]. 20 de diciembre de 2009 [citado 17 de abril de 2021];60(4):348-56. Disponible en: https://revista.fecolsog.org/index.php/rcog/article/view/318
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