DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18597/rcog.3045

Exactitud de los hallazgos ecográficos 2D más ecografía Doppler para el diagnóstico de acretismo placentario clínico en gestantes con factores de riesgo

Wilmer Fabián Rangel-Carvajal, Luz Ángela Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Luis Alfonso Díaz-Martínez

Resumen


Objetivo: establecer, en gestantes con factores de riesgo, la exactitud de la ecografía 2D más Doppler para hacer el diagnóstico de acretismo placentario al compararlo con el diagnóstico clínico.

Materiales y métodos: estudio de evaluación de la exactitud diagnóstica en gestantes de alto riesgo de placenta ácreta que terminaron el embarazo entre 2014 y 2016 en el Hospital Universitario de Santander. Previo consentimiento informado se incluyeron 51 gestantes mayores de 18 años, con más de 12 semanas de edad gestacional, con placenta baja o anterior, o antecedentes de cirugía uterina. Se comparó el diagnóstico de alta probabilidad de acretismo placentario dado por la presencia de, al menos, dos criterios en la ecografía 2D y uno en el Doppler, con un patrón de oro dado por el hallazgo visual durante la cesárea y la pieza quirúrgica en las que fueron llevadas a histerectomía, o la evolución clínica en las mujeres con parto vaginal. Se describen las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, y se calcula la sensibilidad, especificidad y razón de probabilidades positiva y negativa.

Resultados: el diagnóstico de alta probabilidad de acretismo placentario dado por ecografía 2D más Doppler tiene una sensibilidad del 88,2 % (IC 95 %: 70,0-100) y especificidad del 97,1 % (IC 95 %: 89,9- 100), LR positivo de 30,0 (IC 95 %: 4,3-208,5) y LR negativo de 0,12 (IC 95 %: 0,03-0,45).

Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de alta probabilidad de acretismo placentario por imágenes diagnósticas no invasivas ofrece información valiosa sobre la presencia y extensión del acretismo placentario en pacientes con factores de riesgo conocidos Palabras clave: acretismo placentario, ultrasonografía doppler, técnicas de diagnóstico obstétrico y ginecológico.


Palabras clave


acretismo placentario; ultrasonografía doppler; técnicas de diagnóstico obstétrico y ginecológico

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Referencias


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